Health and Safety

HEALTH AND SAFETY

 SALIENT FEATURES OF FACTORIES ACT:

Section 13 (Cleanliness).

Section 14 (Disposal of wastes and effluents).

Section 15 (Ventilation and temperature).

Section 16 (Dust and fumes).

Section 17 (Artificial Humidification).

Section 18 (Overcrowding).

Section 19 (Lighting).

Section 20 (Drinking water).

Section 21 (Latrines and Urinals).

Section 22 (Spittoons).

Section 23 ( Precaution’s against contagions or infections).

Section 25 (Precautions in case of fire).

Section 26 (Fencing of Machinery).

Section 27 (Work on or near the Machinery in motion).

Section 28 (Employment of young children on dangerous machines).

Section 29 (Striking gear and devices for cutting of power).

Section 30 (Self-acting Machines).

Section 31 (Casing of new Machinery).

Section 33 (Cranes and other lifting Machinery).

Section 33-A (Hoists and lifts).

Section 33-B (Revolving Machinery).

Section 33-C (Pressure Plants).

Section 33-D (Floors, Stairs and Means of Access).

Section 33-E (Pits, pumps, opening in floor).

Section 33-F (Excessive Weights).

Section 33-G (Protection of eyes).

Section 33-H (Safety of building, Machinery & manufacturing).

Section 33-I (Powers to make rules to supplement the chapter).

Section 33-J (Precautions against dangerous fumes).

Section 33-K (Explosive and inflammable dust, etc.)

AMENDMENTS IN THE YEAR 1973:

Section 23 (Precautions against contagious and infectious diseases).

Section 23-A (Compulsory vaccination and inoculation).

Section 24-A (Welfare officer).

Section 28 (employment of young persons on dangerous machines).

Section 33-O (Sub-section (4) (Hazardous operations).

Section 49-H&I (casual leave, sick leave and festival holidays).

Section 50 (Age of children).

FURTHER AMENDMENTS & ADDITIONS:

Rule-20 (Sanitation in and around the factories).

Rule-22 (First aid).

Rule-33 (10) (Accuracy of Hygrometers).

Rule-38 (Insulation of pipes).

Rule-41 (77) drinking water.

Rule-44 (2) Latrines and urinals.

FACTORY RULES:

The rules concerning the health and safety of the workers, to be adopted by the factories, were already in force in the Punjab, NWFP and Balochistan since August 1936, January 1937 and July 1947 respectively, but in Sindh Province, the Factories’ Rules 1937 of Bombay Province were adopted in October 1947 i.e. just after the creation of Pakistan.

In practice, almost all the rules were the same in all the provinces of Pakistan, with the exception that in certain provinces there were some variations in the provision of the quality of water for washing, the number of seats in the latrines in relation to the number of workers, the number of urinals in relation to the number of workers, etc.

It was in the year 1962 that the need was felt to make uniform rules under different provisions of the Factories’ Act. Almost all the rules prevalent in the Punjab Province and many of the rules in practice in Sindh were amalgamated and new rules implemented. The following were the additions or changes made:

Rule-20 (Sanitation in and around the factories).

Rule-22 (First aid).

Rule-33 (10) (Accuracy of Hygrometers).

Rule-38 (Insulation of pipes).

Rule-41 (77) drinking water.

Rule-44 (2) Latrines and urinals.

Rule-60 (Fencing pits)

Rule-70 (2) Provision of Loin Cloth to Workers

Rule-74 (Accidents)

Rule-77 (A) Final Notice of Accidents Details are provided in Annexure- II.

More Detail Coming Soon.

THE INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS ORDINANCE, 1969:

(XXIII OF 1969) 
[13th November, 1969] An Ordinance to amend and consolidate the law relating to the formation of trade unions, the regulation of relations between employers and workmen and the avoidance and settlement of any the avoidance and settlement of any difference or disputes arising between them

Preamble: Whereas it is expedient to amend and consolidate the law relating to the formation of trade unions, the regulation of relation between employers and workmen and the avoidance and settlement of any differences or disputes arising between them or matters connected therewith and ancillary thereto;

And, whereas, the national interest of Pakistan in relation to the achievement of uniformity requires Federal legislation in the matter;

Now, therefore, in pursuance of the proclamation of the 25th day of March, 1969 read with the provisional Constitution Order, 1969 and in exercise of all powers enabling him in that  behalf the President is pleased to make and promulgate the following Ordinance:-

PRELIMINARY

  1. Short title, extent, application and commencement: (1) This Ordinance may be called the Industrial Relations Ordinance, 1969.

(2) It extends to the whole of Pakistan.

2[(3) It shall not apply to any person employed.

(a) in the Police or any of the Defence Services of Pakistan or any services or installations connected with or incidental to the Armed Forces of Pakistan including an Ordnance Factory maintained by the Federal Government; or

(b) in the administration of the State other than those employed as workmen by the Railway, Posts, Telegraph and Telephone Departments; or

(c) as a member of the Security Staff of the Pakistan International Airlines Corporation, or drawing wages in such pay group, not lower than group V, in the establishment of that Corporation as the Federal Government may, in the  public interest or in the interest of security of the Airlines, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf; or

(d) by the Pakistan Television Corporation or the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation; or

(e) by the Pakistan Security Printing Corporation or the Security Papers Limited 3[or];

4[(f) by an establishment maintained for the treatment or care of sick infirm, destitute as mentally unfit persons]; 5[or]

6[(g) as a member of the Watch and Ward, Security or Fire Service Staff of an oil refinery; or

(h) as a member of the Security of Fire Service Staff of an establishment engaged in the production, transmission or distribution of natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas.]

7[(3-A) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (3), for a period of sixty days from the commencement of the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act, 1976, this Ordinance shall not apply to any person employed in the establishment of the Pakistan International Airlines Corporation.]

  1. Definitions : In this Ordinance unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,-

(i)  "Arbitrator" means a person appointed as such under this Ordinance;

(ii)  "Award" means the determination by a Labour Court, Arbitrator or Appellate Tribunal of any industrial dispute or any matter relating thereto and includes an interim award;

(iii) & (iv) [Omitted by the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Ordinance, XIX of 1970, Section 2 (a)];

(v)   "Collective bargaining agent", in relation to an establishment or industry, means the trade union of the workmen which under Section 22, is the agent of workmen in the establishment or, as the case may be, industry, in the matter of collective bargaining;

8[(v-a) "Collective bargaining unit' means those workers or class of workers of an employer in one or more establishment falling within the same class of industry whose terms and conditions of employment are, or could appropriately be, the subject of collective bargaining together;

(v-aa) "Commission" means the National Industrial Relations Commission constituted under Section 22-A;]

(vi) "Conciliation proceedings" means any proceedings before a conciliator];

(vii) "Conciliator" means,-

(a) in respect of disputes which the National Industrial Relations Commission is competent to adjudicate and determine, a person appointed as such under sub-section (2) of Section 27; and

(b) in respect of other disputes, a person appointed as such under sub-section (1) of that section];

(viii) "Employer", in relation to an establishment, means any person or body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who or which employs workmen in the establishment under a contract of employment and includes-

(a) an heir, successor or assign, as the case may be, of such person or body as aforesaid;

(b) any person responsible for the management, supervision and control of the establishment:

(c) in relation to an establishment run by or under the authority of any department of the Federal Government or Provincial Government, the authority appointed in this behalf or, where no authority is so appointed, the Head of the department;

(d) in relation to an establishment run by or on behalf of a local authority, the officer appointed in this behalf, or where no officer is so appointed, the chief executive officer of that authority;

Special Provision : For the purpose of distinction from the category of "workers" or "workmen", officers and employees of a department of the Federal Government or a Provincial Government or local authority who belong to the superior, managerial, secretarial, directorial; supervisory or agency staff and who have been notified for this purpose in the official Gazette shall be deemed to fall within the category of "employers";

(e) in relation to any other establishment, the proprietor of such establishment and every director, manager, secretary, agent or officer or person concerned with the management of the affairs thereof;

(ix) "Establishment" means any office, firm, industrial  unit undertaking, shop or premises in which workmen are employed for the purpose of carrying on any 9[industry] 10[and, except in Section 22-EE; includes a collective bargaining unit, if any, constituted under that section in any establishment or group of establishments];

(x)  "Executive" means the body, by whatever name called, to which the management of the affairs of a trade union is entrusted by its constitution:

(xi) "Illegal lock-out" means a lock-out declared, commenced or continued otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance;

(xii) "Illegal strike" means a strike declared, commenced or continued otherwise than in accordance ith the provisions of this Ordinance;

(xiii) "Industrial dispute" means any dispute or difference between employers and employers or between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or the conditions of work of any person; and is not in respect of the enforcement of any right guaranteed or secured to him by or under any law. "other than this Ordinance, or any award or settlement to the time being in force;

(xiv) "Industry" means any business, trade manufacture, calling, service, employment or occupation:

(xiv-a) "inspector" means an inspector appointed under this Ordinance;

(xv) "Labour Court" means  a  Labour Court establishment under Section 35;

(xvi) ''Lock-out" means the dosing of a place of employment or part of such place, or the suspension, wholly or partly, of work by an employer, or refusal, absolute or conditional, by an employer to continue to employ any number of workmen employed by him, where such closing, suspension or refusal occurs in connection with an industrial dispute or is intended for the purpose of compelling workmen employed to accept certain terms and conditions of or affecting employment;

(xvii) "Organisation" means any organisation of workers or of employers for furthering and defending the interests of workers or of employers;

(xviii) "Officer", in relation to a trade union, means any member of the executive thereof but does not include an auditor or legal adviser;

(xix) "Prescribed" means prescribed by rules;

(xx) "Public utility service" means any of the services specified in the Schedule;

(xxi) "Registered trade union" means a trade union registered under this Ordinance;

(xxii) "Registrar" means a Registrar of Trade Unions appointed under Section 12;

(xxiii) "Rule" means rule made under Section 66;

(xxiv) "Settlement" means a settlement arrived at in the course of a conciliation proceeding, and includes an agreement between an employer and his workmen arrived at otherwise than in the course of any conciliation proceedings, where  such agreement is in writing, has been signed by the parties thereto in such manner as may be prescribed and a copy thereof has been sent to the Provincial Government, the Conciliator and such other person as may be prescribed;

(xxv) "Strike" means a cessation of work by a body of persons employed in any establishment acting in combination or a concerted refusal, or refusal under a common understanding of any number of persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or to accept employment;

(xxvi) "Trade union" means any combination of workmen or employers formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers, or workmen and workmen or employers and employers, or for restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business and includes a federation of two or more trade unions;

(xxvii) "Tribunal" means a Labour Appellate Tribunal constituted under Section 38 of this Ordinance;

11[(xxvii-a) "Wage Commission" means a Wage Commission constituted under Section 38-A;]

(xxviii) "Worker" and "workman" mean any person not failing within the definition of employer who is employed (including employment 12[as a supervisor or] as an apprentice) in an establishment or industry for hire or reward wither directly or through a contractor whether the terms of employment be expressed or implied, and, for the purpose of any proceedings under this Ordinance in relation to an industrial dispute includes a person who has been dismissed, discharged, retrenched, isid-off or otherwise removed from employment in connection with or as a consequence of that dispute or whose dismissal, discharge, retrenchment, lay-off, or removal has led to that dispute 13[but does not include any person-

(a) who is employed mainly in managerial or administrative capacity; or

(b) who, being employed in a supervisory capacity, draws wages exceeding eight hundred rupees per mensern or performs, either because of the nature of duties attached to the office or by reason of the powers vested in him, functions mainly of a managerial nature.]

11 - Clause (xxvii-a) added by 1.R. (Amendment) Act, XVI of 1975, Sec. 3.

  1. Words added by the Labour Laws (Amdt.) Ordinance, IX of 1972.
  2. Words and subclasses (a) & {b) added by Industrial Relations'  (Amendment) Act, XXSX of 1973.

Explanation : [Omitted by the  Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act, XXIX of 1973, S. 2 (3) (i).]

  1. Trade Unions and Freedom of Association : Subject to the provisions contained in this Ordinance:

(a) workers, without distinction whatsoever shall have the right to establish and, subject only to the rules of the organisation concerned, to join associations of their own choosing without previous authorisation:

14[Provided that no worker shall be entitled to be a member of more than one trade union at any one time];

(b) employers, without distinction whatsoever, shall have the right to establish and, subject only to the rules of the organisation concerned, to join associations of their own choosing 
without previous authorisation;

(c) trade unions' and employers' associations shall have the right to draw up their constitutions and rules, to elect their representatives in full freedom, to organise their administration and activities and to formulate their programmes;

(d) workers' and employers' organisations shall have the right to establish and join federations and confederations and any such organisation, federation or confederation shall have the right to affiliate with international organisations and confederations of workers' and employers' organisations.

  1. Law of the land to be respect : Workers and employers and their respective organisations, in exercising the rights provided for in Section 3, like other persons or organised collectivities, shall respect the law of the land.
  2. Application for registration : Any trade union may, under the signature of its President and the Secretary, apply for registration of the trade union under this Ordinance.
  3. Requirements for application : Every application for registration of a Trade Union shall be made to the Registrar and shall be accompanied by-

(a) A statement showing-

(i)   the name of the trade union and the address of its Head Office;

(ii)  date of formation of the union;

(iii) the titles, names, ages, addresses and occupations of the officers of the trade union;

(iv)  statement of total paid membership;

15[(vi-a) the name of the establishment or group of establishments, or the industry, as the case may be, to which the trade union relates 16[along with a statement of the total number of workers employed therein];

17(iv-b) the names and addresses of the registered trade unions in the establishment group of establishments or industry, as the case may be, to which the union relates;]

(v)  in case of a federation of trade unions, the names, addresses and registration number of member-unions;

(b) Three copies of the constitution of the trade union together with a copy of the resolution by the members of the trade union adopting such constitution bearing the signature of the Chairman of the meeting;

(c) A copy of the resolution by the members of the trade union authorising its President and the Secretary to apply for its registration; and

(d) In case of a federation of trade unions, a copy of the resolution from each of the constituent unions agreeing to become a member of the federation.

18[7. Requirements for registration : (1) A trade union shall not be entitled to registration under this Ordinance unless the constitution thereof provides for the following matters, namely:-

(a) the name and address of the trade union;

(b) the objects for which the trade union has been formed;

(c) the purposes for which the general funds of the union shall be applicable;

19[(d)the number of persons forming the executive which shall not exceed the prescribed limit and shall include not less than seventy-five per cent from amongst the workmen actually engaged or employed in the establishment or establishments or the industry for which the trade union has been formed;]

(e) the conditions under which a member shall be entitled to any benefit assured by the constitution of the trade union and under which any fine or forfeiture may be imposed on him;

(f) the maintenance of a list of the members of the trade union and of adequate facilities for the inspection thereof by the officers and members of the trade union;

(g) the manner in which the constitution shall be amended, varied or rescinded;

(h) the safe custody of the funds of the trade union, its annual audit, the manner of audit and adequate facilities for inspection of the account books by the officers and members of the trade union;

(i) the manner in which the trade union may be dissolved;

20[(j) the manner of election of officers by the general body of the trade union and the term, not exceeding two years, for which an officer may hold office upon his election or re-election;

(k) the procedure for expressing want of confidence in any officer of the trade union; and

(l) the meetings of the executive and of the general body of the trade union, so that the executive shall meet at least once every year].

21[(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1) a trade union of workmen shall not be entitled to registration under this Ordinance-

(a) unless all its members are workmen actually engaged or employed in the industry with which the trade union is connected; and

(b) where there are two or more registered trade unions in the establishment, group of establishments or industry with which the trade union is connected, unless it has as its members not less than one-fifth of the total number of workmen employed in such  establishment, group of establishments or industry, as the case may be.

22[7-A. Disqualification for being an officer of a trade union :Not withstanding anything contained in the constitution or rules of a trade union, a person who has been convicted of an offence under 23[...] Section 61 shall be disqualified from being elected as, or from being, an officer of a trade union.

24[7-B. Registered trade union to maintain register, etc. :Every registered trade union shall maintain in such form as may be prescribed-

(a) a register of members showing particulars of subscriptions paid by each member;

(b) an accounts book showing receipts and expenditure; and

(c) a minute book for recording the proceedings of meetings].

  1. Registration : (1) The Registrar, on being satisfied that the trade union has complied with all the requirements of this Ordinance, shall register the trade union in a prescribed register and issue a registration certificate in the prescribed form within a period of  25[fifteen] days from the date of receipt of the application. In case the application is found by the Registrar to be deficient in a material respect or respects he shall communicate in writing his objections to the trade union within 
    a period of 15 days from the receipt of the application and the trade union shall reply thereto within a period of fifteen days from the receipt of the objections.

(2) When the objections raised by the Registrar have been satisfactorily met, the Registrar shall register the trade union as provided in sub-section (1) 26[and issue a certificate of registration in the prescribed form within three days of the date of the objections having been so met]. In case the objections are not satisfactorily met, the Registrar may reject the application.

(3) In case the application has been rejected or the Registrar has 27[delayed disposal of the application beyond the period of fifteen days provided in sub-section (1) or has not issued a certificate of registration within a period of three days as provided in sub-section (2), as the case may be,] the trade union may appeal to the Labour Court who for reasons to be stated in 28[its] judgement may pass an order directing the Registrar to register the trade union and to issue a certificate of registration or may dismiss the appeal.

29[(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Ordinance, every alteration made in the constitution of a registered trade union and every change of its officers shall be notified by the trade union to the Registrar within fifteen days of such change.

(5) The Registrar may refuse to register such change or alteration if it is in contravention of any of the provisions of this Ordinance, or if it is in violation of the constitution of the trade union.

(6) Subject to the provision of sub-section (5), every enclusion or exclusion of any constituent unit of a federation of trade unions shall be notified by registered post by the federation to the Registrar within fifteen days of such inclusion or exclusion.

(7) In case there is a dispute in relation to the change of officers of a trade union, or any trade union is aggreived by the refusal of the Registrar under sub-section (5), any officer or member of the trade union may apply or appeal to the Labour Court, who shall within seven days of receipt of the application or appeal, as the case may  be, pass an order either directing the Registrar to register the change or alteration in the constitution or in the officers of the trade union or may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, direct the Registrar to hold fresh elections of the union under his  supervision.]

30[8-A. Transfers, etc., of officer of trade union during pendency of application for registration : Save with the prior permission of the Registrar no officer of a trade union of workmen shall be transferred, discharged, dismissed or otherwise punished during the pendency of an application for registration of the trade union with the Registrar, provided that the union has notified the names of its officers to the employer in writing.

  1. Certificate of registration : The Registrar, on registering a trade union under Section 8, shall issue a certificate of registration in the prescribed form which shall be conclusive evidence that the trade union has been duly registered under this Ordinance.
  2. Cancellation of registration : (1) The registration of a trade union shall be cancelled if the Labour Court so directs upon a complaint in writing made by the Registrar that the trade union has:-

(i)   contravened 31[or has been registered in contravention of] any of the provisions of this Ordinance or the rules; or

(ii)  contravened any of the provisions of its constitution; or

(iii) made in its constitution any provision which is inconsistent with this Ordinance or the rules;

(iv)  [Omitted by the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act, XVI of 1975.]

(2) Where any person who is disqualified under Section 7-A from being elected as, or from being, an officer of a trade union is elected as an officer of a registered trade union, the registration of that trade union shall be cancelled if the Labour Court, upon a complaint in writing made in this behalf by the Registrar, so directs.

32[(3) The registration of a trade union shall be cancelled by the Registrar if, after holding such inquiry as he deems fit, he finds that such trade union has dissolved itself or has ceased to exist.]

33[11. Appeal against cancellation : Any trade union aggrieved by a decision given:-

(a) by the Labour Court under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of Section 10, may appeal to the Tribunal, or

(b) by the Registrar under sub-section (3) of Section 10, may appeal to the Labour Court.

  1. Registrar of trade unions : For the purpose of this Ordinance, the Provincial Government shall, by notification in the official Gazette, appoint as many persons as it considers necessary to be Registrars of trade unions and, where it appoints more than one Registrars, shall specify in the notification the area within which each one of them shall exercise and perform the powers and functions under this Ordinance.
  2. Powers and functions of Registrar : (1) The following shall be the powers and functions of the Registrar:-

(a) the registration of trade unions under this Ordinance and the maintenance of a register for the purpose;

34[(b) to lodge, or authorise any person to lodge, complaints with the Labour Court or Commission for action, including prosecution, against trade unions, employers, workers or other persons for any alleged offence or any unfair labour practice or violation of any provision of the Ordinance or for expending the funds of a trade union in contravention of the provisions of its constitution;]

(c) the determination of the question as to which one of the trade unions in an establishment or an industry is entitled to be certified as the collective bargaining agent in relation to that establishment or industry;

35[(cc) to inspect the accounts and record of the registered trade unions, or investigate or hold such inquiry as he deems fit, either himself or through any officer subordinate to, and authorised in writing in this behalf by, him; and]

(d) such other powers and function as may be prescribed.

Incorporation of registered trade union : (1) Every registered trade union shall be a body corporate by the name under which it is registered, shall have perpetual succession and a common seal and the power to contract and to acquire, hold and dispose of property, both movable and immovable, and shall by the said name sue or be sued.

(2) The Societies Registration Atc, 1860, the Co-operative Societies Act, 1912 and the Companies Ordinance, 1994, shall not apply to any registered trade union and the registration of any trade union under any of these Acts shall be void.

  1. Unfair labour practices on the part of employers :(1) No employer or trade union of employers and no person acting on behalf of either shall:-

(a) impose any condition in a contract of employment seeking to restrain the right of a person who is a party to such contract to join a trade union or continue his membership of a trade union; or

(b) refuse to employ or refuse to continue to employ any person on the ground that such person is, or is not a member or officer of a trade union; or

(c) discriminate against any person in  regard to any employment, promotion, condition of employment or working condition on the ground that such person is, or is not, a member of officer of a trade union; or

(d) dismiss, discharge, remove from employment 36[or transfer] or threaten to dismiss, discharge or remove from employment 37[or transfer] a workman or injure or threaten to injure him in respect of his employment by reason that the workman:-

(i)  is or proposes to become, or seeks to persuade any other person to become, a member or officer of a trade union; or

(ii) participate in the promotion, formation or activities of a trade union;

(e) induce any person to refrain from becoming, or to cease to be a member or officer of a trade union, by conferring or offering to confer any advantage on, or by procuring or offering to procure any advantage for such person or any other person;

(f) 36[compel or attempt to compel any officer of the collective bargaining agent to arrive at a] settlement by using intimidation, coercion, pressure, threat, confinement to a place, physical injury, disconnection of water, power and telephone facilities and such other methods;

(g) interfere with or in any way influence the balloting provided for in Section 22; or

(h) recruit any new workmen during the period of a notice of strike under Section 28 or during the currency of a strike which is not illegal except where the Conciliator has, being satisfied that complete cessation of work is likely to cause serious damage to the machinery or installation, permitted temporary employment of a limited number of workmen in the section where the damage is likely to occur];

38[(i) close down the whole of the establishment in contravention of Standing Order 11-A of the W.P. Industrial and Commercial Employment (Standing Orders) Ordinance, 1968 (W.P. Ordinance No. VI of 1968); or

(j) commence, continue, instigate or incite others to take part in, or expend or supply money or otherwise act in furtherance or support of, an illegal lock-out].

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to preclude an employer from requiring that a person upon his appointment or promotion to managerial position shall cease to be, and shall be disqualified from being, a member or officer of a trade union of workmen.

  1. Unfair Labour Practices on the part of workmen :(1) No workmen or 39[other person or trade union of workmen] shall:-

(a) persuade a workman to join or refrain from joining a trade union during working hours; or

(b) intimidate any person to become, or refrain from becoming, or to continue to be, or to cease to be a member or officer of a trade union; or

(c) induce any person to refrain from becoming, or cease to be a member or officer of a trade union, by 40[intimidating or] conferring or offering to confer any advantage on, or by procuring or offering to procure any advantage for such person or any other person; or

41[(d) compel or attempt to compel the employer to accept any demand by using intimidation, coercion, pressure, threat, confinement to, or ouster from, a place, dispossession, assault, physical injury, disconnection of telephone, water or power facilities or such other methods;

(e) commence, continue, instigate or incite others to take part in, or expend or supply money or otherwise act in furtherance or support of, an illegal strike or a go slow.]

Explanation : In this clause, `go slow' means an organised, deliberate and purposeful slowing down of normal output, or the deterioration of the normal quality of work by a body of workmen acting in a concerted manner, but does not include the slowing down of normal output, or the deterioration of the normal quality of work which is due to mechanical defect, breakdown of machinery, failure or defect in power supply or in the supply of normal materials and spare parts of machinery.]

(2) It shall be an unfair practice for a trade union to interfere with a ballot held under Section 22 by the exercise of undue influence, intimidation, impersonation or bribery through its executive or through any person acting on its behalf.

Rights and Privilages of Registered Trade Unions and Collective Bargaining Agents

  1. Law of conspiracy limited in application :No officer or member of a registered trade union or a collective bargaining agents as 42[certified] by the Registrar shall be liable to punishment under sub-section (2) of Section 120-B of the Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 in respect of any agreement made between the members thereof for the purpose of furthering any such object of the trade union as is specified in its constitution referred to in Section 7, unless the agreement is an agreement to commit an offence, or otherwise violate any law other than this Ordinance.
  2. Immunity from civil suit in certain cases : (1) No suit or other legal proceedings shall be maintainable in any civil Court against any registered trade union or a collective bargaining agent or any officer or member thereof in respect of any action done in contemplation or furtherance of an industrial dispute to which the trade union is a party on the ground only that such act induces some other person to break a contract of employment, or that it is an interference with the trade,  business or employment of some other person or with the right of some other person to dispose of his capital or of his labour as he wills.

(2) A trade union shall not be liable in any suit or other legal proceedings in any civil Court in respect of any tortious act done in contemplation or futherance of an industrial dispute by an agent of the trade union if it is proved that such person acted without the knowledge of, or contrary to express instructions given by, the executive of the trade union.

  1. Enforcibility of agreeement : Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, an agreement between the members of a trade union shall not be void or voidable by reason only that any of the objects of the agreement are in restraint of trade:

Provided that nothing in this section shall enable any civil Court to entertain any legal proceedings instituted for the express purpose of enforcing, or recovering damages for the breach of any agreement concerning the conditions on which any member of a trade union shall or shall not sell their goods, transact business or work, employ or be employed.

  1. Registration of federation of trade unions : (1) any two or more registered trade unions may, if their respective general bodies so resolve, constitute a federation by executing an instrument of federation and apply for the registration of the federation:

Provided that a trade union of workmen shall not join a federation which comprises a trade union of employers; nor shall a trade union of employers join a federation which comprises a trade union of workmen.

(2) An instrument of federation referred to in sub-section (1) shall, among other things, provide for the procedures to be followed by the federated trade unions and the rights and responsibilities of the federation and the federated trade unions.

(3) An application for the registration of a federation of trade unions shall be signed by the Presidents of all the trade unions constituting thje federation or by the Officers of these trade unions respectively authorised by the trade unions in this behalf and shall be accompanied by three copies of the instrument of federation referred to in sub-section (1).

(4) Subject to sub-section (1), (2) and (3), the provisions of the Ordinance shall, so far as may be and with the necessary modifications, apply to a federation of trade unions as they apply to a trade union.

  1. Returns : (1) There shall be sent annually to the Registrar, on or before such date as may be prescribed, a general statement, audited in the prescribed manner, of all receipts and expenditure of every registered trade union during the year ending on the 31st day of December, next preceding such prescribed date, and of the assets and liabilities of the trade union existing on such 31st day of December, as may be prescribed.

(2) Together with the general statement there shall be sent to the Registrar a statement showing all changes of officers made by the trade union during the year to which the general statement refers, together also with 43[statement of the total paid membership and] a copy of the constitution of the trade union corrected upto the date of the despatch thereof to the Registrar.

(3) A copy of every alteration made in the constitution of a registered trade union and of a resolution of the general body having the effect of a provision of the constitution, shall be sent to the Registrar within fifteen days of the making of the alteration or adoption of the resolution.

(4) In case the registered trade union is member of a federation, the name of the federation shall be given in the annual statement.

44[22. Collective bargaining agent: (1) Where there is only one registered trade union in an establishment or a group of establishments, that trade union shall if it has as its members not less than one-third of the total number of workmen employed in such establishment or group of establishments, 45[upon an application made in this behalf be certified by the Registrar in the prescribed manner] to be the collective bargaining agent for such establishment or group.

(2) Where there are more registered trade unions than one in an establishment or a group of establishments, the Register shall upon an application made in this behalf by any such trade union which has as its members not less than one-third of the total number of workmen employed in such establishment or group of establishments or by the employer 46[for the Government], hold 47[within fifteen days from the making of the application,] as secret ballot to determine as to which one of such trade unions shall be the collective bargaining agent for the establishment or group:

48[Provide that the Registrar may, in the case of a large establish- ment having its branches in more than one town, hold the secret ballot within thirty days from the making of the application]:

47[Provided further that the Registrar shall not entertain any application under this sub-section in respect of an establishment or group of establishments, consisting of, or including, a seasonal factory within the meaning of Section 4 of the Factories Act, 1934 (XXV of 1937), unless such application is made during the month in which the number of workmen employed in such factory in a year is usually the maximum.]

(3) Upon receipt of an application under sub-section (2) the Registrar shall, by notice in writing; call upon every registered trade union in the establishment or group of establishments to which the application relates:-

(a) to indicate whether it desires to be a contestant in the secret ballot to be held for determining the collective bargaining agent in relation to such establishment or group; and

(b) if it so desires, to submit to him within the time specified in the notice a list of its members showing, in respect of each member, his parentage, age, the section or department and the place in which he is employed, his ticket number and the date of his becoming of trade unions, a list of its affiliated trade unions together with a list of members of each such trade union showing in respect of each such member the said particulars.

(4) Every employer shall:-

(a) on being so required by the Registrar, submit a list of all workmen employed in the establishment excluding those whose period of employment in the establishment is less than three months and showing, in respect of each workman, his parentage, age, the section or department and the place in which he is employed, his ticket number and the date of his employment in the establishment; and

(b) provide such facilities for verification of the lists submitted by him and the trade unions as the Registrar may require:

49[Provided that, in computing the period of three months referred to in clause (a) in the case of a workman employed in a seasonal factory within the meaning of Section 4 of the Factories Act, 1934 (XXV of 1934), the period during which he was employed in that factory during the preceding seasons shall also be taken into account.]

(5) The Registrar shall, after verification of the lists submitted by the trade unions, prepare a list of voters in which shall be included the name of every workman whose period of employment 50[as computed in accordance with sub-section (4),] is not less than three months and who is a member of any of the contesting trade unions and shall, at least four days prior to the date fixed for the poll, send to each of the contesting trade unions a certified copy of the list of voters so prepared.

(6) Every workman who is a member of any of the contesting trade unions and whose name appears in the list of voters prepared under sub-section (5) shall be entitled to vote at the poll to determine the collective bargaining agent.

(7) Every employer shall provide all such facilities in his establishment as may be required by the Registrar for the conduct of the poll but shall not interfere with, or in any way influence, the voting.

(8) No person shall canvass for vote within a radius of fifty yards of the polling station.

(9) For the purpose of holding secret ballot to determine the collective bargaining agent, the Registrar shall:-

(a) fix the date for the poll and intimate the same to each of the contesting trade unions and also to every employer;

(b) on the date fixed for the poll so placed in the polling station set up for the purpose the ballot boxes which shall be sealed in the presence of the representatives of the contesting trade unions as to receive the ballot papers;

(c) conduct the poll at the polling station at which the representatives of the contesting trade unions shall have the right to be present;

(d) after the conclusion of the poll and in the presence of such of the representatives of the contesting trade unions as may be present, open the ballot boxes and count the votes; and

(e) after the conclusion of the count, 51[certify] the trade union which has received the highest number of votes to be the collective bargaining agent:

Provided that no trade union shall be 50[certified] to be the collective bargaining agent for an establishment or group of establishments unless the number of votes received by it is not less that one-third of the total number of workmen employed in such establishment or group:

52[Provided further that, if no trade union secure such number of votes in the first poll, a second poll shall be held between the trade unions which secure the two highest numbers of votes in the first poll and the trade union which secures a majority of the votes cast at the second poll shall be certified in the prescribed manner to be the collective bargaining agent:

Provided further that, if the number of votes secured by two or more trade unions securing the highest number of votes is equal, further poll shall be held between them until one of them secures a majority of the votes cast at such further poll.

(9-a) If no trade union indicates under clause (a) of sub-section (3) that it desires to be a constestant in the secret ballot, the Registrar shall certify the trade union which has made the application under sub-section (2) to be the collective bargaining agent.]

(10) Where a registered trade union has been 53[certified] under clause (e) of sub-section (9) to be the collective bargaining agent for an establishment or group of establishments, no application for the determination of the collective bargaining agent for such establishment or group shall be entertained within a period of two years from the date of such 54[certification] 30[except where the registration of such a registered trade union is cancelled before the expiration of that period].

(11) A collective bargaining agent may, without prejudice to its own position, implead as a party to any proceedings under this Ordinance to which it is itself a party any federation of trade unions of which it is a member.

(12) The collective bargaining agent in relation to an establishment or group of establishments shall be entitled to:-

(a) undertake collective bargaining with the employer or employers on matters connected with employment, non-employment, the term with employment, non-employment, the term of employment or the conditions of work 55[other than matters which relate to the enforcement of any right guaranteed or secured to it or any workman by or under any law, other than this Ordinance, or any award or settlement;]

(b) represent all or any of the workman in any proceedings;

(c) give notice of, and declare, a strike in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance; and

(d) nominate representatives of workmen on the Board of Trustees of any welfare institutions or Provident Funds and of the Workers' Participation Fund established under the Companies Profits (Workers Participation) Act, 1968 (XII of 1968)].

56[(13) The Registrar may authorize in writing an officer to perform all or any of his functions under this section.]

57[22-A. National Industrial Relations Commission :(1) The Federal Government shall constitute a National Industrial Relations Commission 58[...]

(2) The Commission shall consist of not less than seven members, including the Chairman.

(3) The qualification for appointment as a member or as the Chairman of the Commission shall be such as may be determined by the Federal Government.

(4) The Chairman and other members of the Commission shall be appointed by the Federal Government.

(5) Two of the members shall be appointed in the prescribed manner to advise the Chairman, one to represent the employers and the other to represent industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions and federations at the national level.

(6) The Chairman of the Commission may, in addition to the representatives of workers appointed to the Commission, co-opt, in cases where he deems it necessary, from amongst workers belonging to federations at the national level such representatives of workers as he may deem fit.

(7) The workers' representative co-opted under sub-sec. (6) shall be entitled to such honorarium as the Federal Government may, on the advice of the Chairman of the Commission, determine.

(8) The following shall be the functions of the Commission, namely:-

(a) to promote the formation of trade unions of workers within the same industry whether in establishments within a Province or in more than one Province and federations of such trade 
unions;

(b) to promote the formation of federations at the national level;

(c) to adjudicate-and determine an industrial dispute to which an industry-wise trade union or a federation of 59[such trade unions is a party 60[and which is not confined to matters of purely local nature] and any other industrial dispute which is, in the opinion of the Federal Government, of national importance and is referred to it by that Government;

  1. Section 22-A subs. by Labour Laws (Amdt.) Ordinance, IX of 1972.
  2. Words "hereinafter" referred to as the Commission" omitted by Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act, XVI of 1975, Sec 11.
  3. Subs. by Labour Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, IX of 1972.
  4. Words added, ibid., Sec. 12.

(d) to register industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions and federations at the national level;

(e) to determine the collective bargaining agents amongst industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions and federations at the national level;

61[(f) to try offences 62[...] punishable under:-

(i)  Section 53 other than sub-sections (1) and (5) thereof; and

(ii) any other section, in so far as they relate to employers or workers in relation to an industry-wise trade union, a federation of such trade unions, a federation at the national level or officers of such union or federation;

(g) to deal with cases of unfair labour practices specified in Sections 15 and 16 on the part of or persons acting on behalf of any of them, whether committed individually or collectively, in the manner laid down under Section 25-A or Section 34 or in such other way as may be prescribed, and to take, in such manner as may be prescribed, and to take, in such manner as may be prescribed by regulations under Section 22-F, measures calculated to prevant an employer or workman from committing an unfair labour practice;]

(h) to advice Government, industry-wise trade unions and federations in respect to the education of workers in the essentials of trade unionism, including education in respect of their right and obligations, and to secure the provision of facilities required therefore, and to apportion the cost thereof between the Provincial and Federal Governments, industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions and federations at the national level, and the employers, in such manner as may be considered equitable by the Commission; and

(i) such other powers and functions as the Federal Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, assign to it form time to time.

63[(9) The Commission may, on the application of a party, or of its own motion,:-

(a) initiate prosecution, trial or proceedings, or take action, with regard to any matter relating to its function; and

(b) withdrawn from a 64[..] Labour Court any application, proceedings or appeal relating to unfair labour practice.]

65[(10) For the purpose of dealing with a case of unfair labour practice of which the Commission is seized, the Commission may:-

(a) proceed directly with the case, or

(b) ask the Registrar within whose jurisdiction the case has occured or is likely to occur to enquire into it and submit a report, or

(c) refer the case to a 66[...] Labour Court within whose jurisdiction the case has occurred or is likely to occur, either for report or for disposal.

(10-a) The 66[...] Labour Court to whom the case is so referred shall enquire into it and, if the case was referred to it for report, forward its report thereon to the Commission or, if the case was referred to it for disposal, continue the proceedings and dispose of the case as if the proceedings had originally commenced before it 67[and grant such relief as the Commission has the power to grant].

(11) Save as provided in 68[sub-section (10-a) and (12)] no Register, Labour Court or Tribunal shall take any action, or entertain any application or proceedings, in respect of any matter which falls within the jurisdiction of the Commission.

69(12) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to exclude the jurisdiction of 70[...] a Labour Court to entertain cases of unfair labour practices on the part of employers or workmen, whether individually or collectively:

Provided that no Court, including 70[...] Labour Court, shall take any action or entertain any application or proceedings in respect of a case of unfair labour practice which is being dealt with by the Commission.]

(13) [Omitted by the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act, XXIX of 1973.]

Explanation : In this section and in 71[the succeeding provisions of this Ordinance], the expressions "industry-wise trade unions", "federation of such trade unions and "Federation at the national level" refer to a trade union that membership of which extends to establishments in more than one province and a federation of trade unions whose membership extends to registered trade unions in more than one Province.]

72[22-B. Benches of the Commission, etc. : (1) The Chairman of the Commission shall exercise general suprintendence over its affairs.

(2) For the efficient performance of the functions of the Commission, the Chairman shall  constitute,:-

(a) a Full Bench of the Commission which shall consist of not less than three members of the Commission; and

(b) as many other Benches of the Commission consisting of one or more members of the Commission as he may deem fit.

(3) The Benches shall,:-

(a) in relation to cases based on allegation of unfair labour practices brought before the Commission for 73[trial of offences, or] enforcement of, or for redress of individual grievances in respect of, any right guaranteed or secured to any employer or worker by or under any law or any award or settlement, perform such functions and exercise such powers as are performed and exercised by 74[...] a Labour Court 75[...];

(b) in relation to industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions at the national level and cases referred to the Commission, perform such functions and exercise such powers as are performed and exercised by a Registrar, a Labour Court or a Tribunal in relation to trade unions and federations of trade unions within a Province;

and, for this purpose, any reference in this Ordinance to a "Registrar" 75[...] "Labour Court", or as the case may be, "Tribunal" shall be deemed to be a reference to the appropriate Bench of the Commission to which such functions are assigned:

Provided that, in the performance of those functions and in the exercise of those powers, the Benches shall, unless otherwise provided in the Ordinance, follow the procedure laid down in the regulations to be made under Section 22-F.

(4) If any member of the Commission is absent form, or is otherwise unable to attend any sitting of the Commission or of a Bench consisting of more than one members of which he is a member, the proceedings of the Commission or Bench may continue, and the decision or award may be given or judgment or sentence may be passed in the absence of such member; and no act, proceedings, decision, or award of the Commission or Bench shall be invalid or be called in question merely on the ground of such absence or of the existence of vacancy in or any defect in the constitution of the Commission or Bench.

(5) If the members of a Bench differ in opinion as to the decision to be given on any point:-

(a) the point shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority, if there is a majority; and

(b) if the members are equally divided, they shall state, the point on which they differ and the case shall be referred by them to the Chairman for hearing on such point by one or more of the other members of the Commission, and such point shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority of the members of the Commission who have heard the case, including those who first heard it:

Provided that if, upon any matter requiring the decision of a Bench which includes the Chairman of the Commission as one of its members, there is a difference of opinion among its members and the members so constituting the Bench are equally divided, the opinion of the Chairman shall prevail and the decision of the Bench shall be expressed in terms of the views of the Chairman.

(6) Any order or decision made, award given, sentence passed, power exercised, functions performed or proceedings taken by any Bench of the Commission in accordance with this Ordinance and the order constituting the Bench shall be deemed to be the order or decision made, award given, sentence passed, power exercised, functions performed or proceedings taken, as the case may be by the Commission.

Explanation : In this section, the expression "the Chairman of the Commission" includes such member of the Commission (to be known as Senior Member) as the Chairman may nominate to perform the functions, and exercise the powers of the Chairman during his absence.

22-C. Additional powers of the Commission : In addition to powers which the Commission has under Section 22-B.

(a) the Commission shall have power to punish any person who obstructs or abuses its process or disobeys any of its orders or directions, or does anything which tends to prejudice the case of a party before it, or tends to bring it or any of its members in relation to proceedings of the Commission into hatred or contempt, or does anything which, by law, constitutes contempt of Court, with simple imprisonment which may extend to two thousand rupees, or with both; and

(b) for the purposes of any ivestigation, enquiry or adjudication to be made by the Commission under this Ordinance, the Chairman or any member of the Commission may at any time between the hours of sunrise and sunset, and any other person authorised in writing by the Chairman or any member of the Commission in this behalf may, after he has given reasonable notice, enter any building, factory, workshop or other place or premises whatsoever and inspect the same or any work, machinery, appliance or article therein or interrogate any person therein in respect of anything situated therein or any matter relevant to matters before the Commission.

22-D. Appeals : (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Ordinance, or in any other law for the time being in force, any person aggrieved by an award or decision given of 76[a sentence or order determining and certifying a collective bargaining unit] passed by any Bench of the Commission, other than a full Bench, may, within thirty days of such award, decision or, 77[sentence or order] prefer an appeal to the Commission.

78[(2) An appeal preferred to the Commission under sub-section (1) shall be disposed of by the Full Bench of the Commission which shall,:-

(a) if the appeal is from an order determining and certifying a collective bargaining unit, have the power to confirm, set aside, vary or modify such an order; and

(b) if the appeal relates to any other matter, have the same power in relation to the appeal as the Labour Court, the Tribunal or the High Court, as the case may be, would have had if the matter to which the appeal relates were a matter in relation to which an appeal can be preferred to the Labour Court, the Tribunal or the High Court.]

79[22-E. Finality of order : No Court shall entertain any plea as to the jurisdiction of the Commission or as the legality or propriety of anything done or purporting to be done by the Commission or any of its Benches, and no 80[decision,] judgment or sentence of the Commission shall be called in question in any manner, whatsoever, in or before any Court or other authority.]

81[22-EE. Determination, etc., of collective bargaining unit :(1) Where the Commission, on an application made in the behalf, by a trade union of workmen or a federation of such trade unions, or on a reference made by the Federal Government, after holding such inquiry as it deems fit, is satisfied that for safeguarding the interest of the workmen employed in an establishment or group of establishments belonging to the same employer and the same industry, in relation to collective bargaining, it is necessary, just and feasible to determine one or more collective bargaining units of such workmen in such establishment or group, it may, having regard to the distribution or workers, existing boundaries of the components of such establishment, or group, facilities of communication, general convenience, sameness or similarity of economic activity and other cognate factors:-

(a) determine and certify one or more collective bargaining units in such establishment or group;

(b) specify the modifications which, in consequence of the decision under this section, will take effect in regard to the registration of the trade unions and federations of trade unions affected by such decision and certification of collective bargaining agents among such unions and federations, nomination or election of shop stewards, and workers' representatives for participation in the management of the factories, if any, affected by such decision;

(c) specify the date or dates from and the period, for which all or any of such changes shall take effect:

Provided that the date so specified shall not be a date falling within the period of two years specified in sub-sec. (10) of Section 22 in its application to a collective bargaining agent certified in respect of an establishment or establishments:

Provided further that, after the receipt of a reference for determination of a collective bargaining unit, the Commission may stop or prohibit the proceedings to determine collective bargaining agent under Section 22 for any establishment or group of establishments which is likely to be affected by a decision under this section:-

(d) take such measures or issue such directions to the Registrar as may be necessary to give effect to such modifications; and

(e) determine and certify a collective bargaining agent for each such unit in accordance with Section 22 in so far as applicable and with the necessary modifications, if such a unit relates to more than one Province, or direct the Registrar to take such action, if such a unit relates to only one Province.

(2) Where the Commission issues any directions to the Registrar under this section, the Registrar shall comply with them within such period as the Commission may from time to time determine.

(3) After the certification of a collective bargaining unit, no trade union shall be registered in respect of that unit except for the whole of such unit and no certification or proceedings for determination of collective bargaining agent under Sec. 22 shall take place for a part of a collective bargaining unit or a group of collective bargaining units.

(4) An order of the Commission under this section shall have effect notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Ordinance.]

82[22-F. Power to make regulations : (1) Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, the Commission may, with the prior approval of the Federal Government, make such regulations relating to its procedure and the performance of its functions as it may deem fit, and the regulations shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in the Evidence Act 1872 (1 of 1872), the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (Act V of 1898), the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act V of 1908) or any other law for the time being in force.

(2) particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such regulations may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) registration of industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions and federations at the national level and the procedure for such registration;

83[(aa) determination of collective bargaining units;]

(b) determination of collective bargaining agent from amongst the industry-wise trade unions, federations of such trade unions or, as the case may be, federations at the national level, and the procedure therefor;

(c) procedure, including rules of evidence, for adjudication of industrial dispute;

(d) procedure, including rules of evidence, for trial of offences;

(e) procedure for dealing with unfair labour practices;

(f) superitendence of the Chairman over the affairs of the Commission;

(g) forms of registers, processes and returns in respect of matters relating to the functions of the Commission; and

(h) fixing of places and times of its sitting and deciding whether to sit in public or in private].

  1. Check off : (1) If a collective bargaining agent so requests, the employer of the workmen who are members of a trade union shall deduct from the wages of the workmen such amounts towards their subscription to the funds of the trade union as may be specified, with the approval of each individual workman named in the demand statement furnished by the trade union.

(2) An employer making any deductions under sub-section (1) shall, within fifteen days of the end of the period from the wages for which the deduction have been made, deposit the entire amount so deducted by him in the account of the trade union on whose behalf he has made the deductions.

84[(2-A) A collective bargaining agent shall maintain with a branch of the National Bank of Pakistan or with a Post Office Savings Bank an account to which shall be credited the entire amount deducted by the employer under sub-section (1) from the wages of the members of the trade union.]

85[(3) The employer shall provide facilities to the collective bargaining agent for ascertaining whether deductions from the wages of its members are being made under sub-section (1)].

86[23-A. Shop steward to act as link between labour and management :87[(1) In every establishment in which fifty or more workmen are employed, Shop Stewards, from amongst the 
workmen in a shop, section or department of the establishment, shall,:-

(a) where there is a collective bargaining agent in the establishment, be nominated by it, or

(b) where there is no collective bargaining agent in the establishment, be elected at a secret ballot held in the prescribed manner.]

Provision : [Omitted by the Federal Laws (Revision & Declaration) Ordinance, XXVII of 1981.]

(2) The employer shall provide all such facilities in his establishment as may be required for the holding of a ballot under sub-section (1) but shall not interfere with, or in any way influence, the voting.

(3) A Shop Steward shall hold office for a period of one year from the date of his election 88[or nomination, as the case may be.]

(4) Any dispute arising out of, or in connection with, the election of a Shop Steward shall be referred to the Register whose decision shall be final and binding on all parties to the dispute.

(5) The Shop Steward shall act as a link between the workers and the employer, assist in the improvement of arrangements for the physical working conditions and production work in the shop, section or department for which he is elected and help workers in the settlement of their problems either connected with work or with any such individual grievance of a workman as is referred to in sub-section (1) of Section 25-A].

89[23-B. Workers participation in management : (1) In every factory employing fifty persons or more there shall be elected 90[or nominated] workers' representatives to participate to the extent of 91[fifty] per cent in the management of the factory :

Provided further that, for the purpose of determining the number of workers' representatives in the management of a factory, fractions equal to, or greater than one-half shall be regarded as one and lesser fractions shall be ignored.

93[(2) The workers' representatives shall be workmen employed in the same factory and shall,:-

(a) where there is a collective bargaining agent in the factory, be nominated by it, or

(b) where there is no collective bargaining agent in the factory, be elected by simple majority at a secret ballot by all workment employed in the factory.]

(3) [Omitted by the Industrial Relations (Amdt.) Act, XXIX of 1973.]

(4) The workers' representatives shall hold office for a period of two years from the date of their election 94[or nomination, as the case may be.]

95[(5) The workers' representatives shall participate in all the meetings of the management committee constituted in the prescribed manner and all matters relating to the management of the factory, except commercial and financial transactionp may be discussed in such meetings.]

(6) The managment shall not take any decision in the following matters without the advice in writing of the workers' representatives, namely:-

(i)   framing of services rules and policy about promotion and discipline of workers;

(ii)  changing physical working conditions in the factory;

(iii)  in-service training of workers;

(iv)  recreation and welfare of workers;

96[(v) regulation of daily working hours and breaks;

(vi)  preparation of leave schedule; and

(vii) matters relating to the order and conduct of workers within the factory.]

(7) The workers' representatives may on their own intiative give advice in writing concerning the matters specified in sub-section (6) and, where they do so, the management shall convene a meeting within two weeks of the receipt of the advice to discuss its merits with them.

(8) The management shall give reply to the workers' representatives within six weeks of the receipt of their advice given under sub-sections (6) or (7) and any such advice shall not be rejected except by the person holding the highest position in the management of the factory.

(9) In case the advice of the workers; representatives is rejected by the management of the factory, the matter 97[may], within fifteen days of the advice being so rejected, be taken up by the collective bargaining agent in the Works Council for bilateral negotiations and thereupon the provisions of Sec. 26 shall apply as they apply to the settlement of an industrial dispute in relation to which the views of the employer or the collective bargaining agent have been communicated to the Works Council under sub-section (1) of that section.

98[(10) The collective bargaining agent for an establishment which is a factory the number of workers employed in which in any shift at any time during a year is fifty or more may apply to the Provincial Government to nominate an auditor to audit the accounts of the factory once after the closing of every accounting year and for that purpose to inspect the accounts, records, premises and stores of the factory once every year.]

(11) An application under sub-section (10) shall be accompanied by a panel of 99[three] persons who are Chartered Accountants within the meaning of the Chartered Accountants Ordinance, 1961 (X of 1961) and on receipt of such an application, the Provincial Government shall appoint one of such persons to be an auditor for the purposes of that sub-section.

(12) The fee of an auditor appointed under sub-section (11) shall be determined by the Provincial Government and paid by the management of the factory who shall also afford him all facilities necessary for the discharge of his functions.

(13) The section shall have effect notwithstanding anything contained in the Companies ordinance, 1984 or any other law for the time being in force or in any agreement or contract or memorandum or articles of association.

(14) In this section,:-

99a[(a) "factory" has the same meaning as in the Factories Act, 1934 (XXV of 1934);

(b) "management" mean the employer.]

1[23-C. Joint management board : (1) Every company which owns or manages a factory, and in every factory which is not so owned or managed, and which employs fifty persons or more, the management shall, in the prescribed manner set up a joint management board in which the workers' participation shall be to the extent of theirty per cent.

(2) The employers representatives on the joint management board shall be from amongst the Directors or senior executives and the workers' representatives shall be workmen employed in the factory.

(3) The joint management board shall look after the following matters, namely:-

(a) improvement in production, productivity and efficiency;

(b) fixation of job and piece-rates;

(c) planned regrouping or transfer of the workers;

(d) laying down the principles of remuneration and introduction of new remuneration methods; and

(e) provision of minimum facilities for such of the workers employed through contractors as are not covered by the laws relating to welfare of workers.

(4) The joint management board may call for reasonable information about the working of the company or factory from its management and the management shall supply the information called for.

(5) The joitn management board shall meet at such intervals as may be prescribed.

(6) The workers' representative shall hold office for such period as may be prescribed.

(7) In this section,:-

(a) "company" has the same meaning as in the Companies Ordinance, 1984 (XLVII of 1984);

(b) "factory" and "management" have the same meaning as in Section 23-B.]

2[23-D. Inspector : (1) The inspectors appointed under Section 10 of the Factories Act, 1934 (XXV of 1934), and such other persons, not being Conciliators appointed under this Ordinance, as the Provincial Government may, by notification in the official Gazette appoint, shall be inspectors for insuring compliance with the provisions of Section 23-B and Sec. 23-C within the local limits assigned to each.

(2) The inspector may:-

(i)   at all reasonable hours enter on any premises and make such examination of any register and document relating to the provisions of Section 23-B and Section 23-C and take on the spot or otherwise such evidence of any person, and exercise such other powers of inspection, as he may deem necessary for discharging his duty;

(ii)  call for such information from the management as he may deem necessary for the discharge of his functions and the management shall provide the information called for within such period as may be specified by him; and

(iii) makle a report in writing to the Register having jurisdiction of any offence punishable under Section 23-E.

(3) Every inspector shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of Section 21 of the Pakistan Penal Code, XLV of 1860.]

3[23-E. Penalty for obstructing inspector : Whoever wilfully obstructs an inspector in the exercise of any power under Section 23-D, or fails to produce on demand by an inspector any register or other document in his custody relating to the provisons of Section 23-B and Section 23-C or the rules, or canceals or prevents and worker in a factory from appearing before or being examined by an inspector, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

23-F. Penalty for contravening Section 23-B or 23C, etc. : (1) Whoever contravenes the provisons of Section 23-B or Section 23-C shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, or with both.

(2) No Court shall take cognizance of any offence punishable under sub-section (1) except upon a complaint in writing made by the Registrar.]

  1. Works Council : (1) In every establishment in which fifty or more workmen are employed or were employed on any day in the preceding twelve months, the employer shall constitute, in the prescribed manner, a Works Council consisting of representatives of the employer and the workmen so however that the number of the representatives of the workmen is not less than the number of the representatives of the employer in the Works Council.

(2) In the case of an establishment where there are one or more trade unions, the collective bargaining agent shall nominate the representatives of the workmen on such Works Council :

Provided that where there is no collective bargaining agent, representatives of workmen on a Works Council shall be chosen in the prescribed manner from amongst the workmen engaged in the establishment for which the Works Council is constituted.

  1. Functions of Works Council : The functions of a Works Council shall be to promote measures for securing and preserving good relations between an employer and his workmen and, in particular:-

(a) to endeavour to maintain continuous sympathy and understanding between the employer and the workmen;

4[(aa) to promote settlement of differences and disputes through bilateral negotiations;

(b) to promote security of employment for the workmen and conditions of safety, health and job satisfaction in their work;

(d) to take measures for facilitating good and harmonious working conditions in the establishment; to provide educationsl facilities for children of workmen in secretarial and accounting procedures and to promote their absorption in these departments of the establishment; and

(e) to discuss any other matter of mutual interest with a view to promoting better labour-management relations.

5[25-A. Redress of individual grievances : (1) A worker may bring his grievance in respect of any right guaranteed or secured to him by or under any law or any award or settlement for the time being in force to the notice of his employer in writing, either himself or through his Shop Steward or [collective bargaining agent] within three months of the day on which the cause of such grievance arises.

(2) Where a worker himself brings his grievance to the notice of the employer, the employer shall, within fifteen days of the grievance being brought to his notice, communicate his decision in writing to the worker.

(3) Where a worker brings his grievance to the notice of his employer through his Shop Steward or 3[collective bargaining agent], the employer shall, within seven days of the grievance being brought to his notice, communicate his decision in writing to the Shop Steward or as the case may be the 3[collective bargaining agent.]

(4) If the employer fails to communicate a decision within the period specified in sub-section (2) or, as the case may be sub-section (3), or if the worker is dissatisfied with such decision, the worker or the Shop Steward may take the matter to his 3[collective bargaining agent] or the 7[Labour Court] or, as the case may be, the 3[collective bargaining agent] may take the matter to the 4[Labour Court], and where the matter is taken to the 4[Labour Court], and where the matter is taken to the 4[Labour Court], it shall give 8[a decision] within 9[seven] days from the date of the matter being brought before it as if such matter were an industrial dispute :

Provided that a worker who desires to so take the matter to the 10[Labour Court] shall do so within a period of two months from the date of the communication of the employer or, as the case may be, from the expiry of the period mentioned in sub-section (2), of sub-section (3), as the case may be.

(5) In adjudicating and determining a grievance under sub-section (4), the 11[Labour Court] shall go into all the facts of the case and pass such orders as may be just and proper in the circumstances of the case.]

(6) & (7) [Omitted by the Labour Laws (Amdt.) Act, XVII of 1977.]

12[(8) If a decision under sub-section (4) or an order under sub-section (5) given by the Labour Court or a decision of the Tribunal in an appeal against such a decision or order is not given effect to or complied with within a week or within the period specified in such order or decision, the defaulter shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

(9) No person shall be prosecuted under sub-section (8) except on a complaint in writing:-

(a) by the workman if the order or decision in his favour is not implemented within the period specified therein; or

(b) by the Labour Court or Tribunal, if an order or decision thereof is not complied with.

(10) For the purposes of this section, workers having common grievance arising out of a common cause of action may make a joint application to the Labour Court.]

13[26. Negotiations relating to differences and disputes :(1) If at any time an employer or a collective bargaining agents finds that an industrial dispute has arisen or is likely to arise, the employer or, as the case may be, the collective bargaining agent, may communicate his or its views in writing either to the Works Council or to the other party so, however, that, where the views are so communicated to the Works Council, a copy of the communication shall also be sent to the other party.

(2) On receipt of the communication under sub-section (1), the Works Council of the party receiving it shall try to settle the dispute 14[by bilateral negotiations within ten days of receipt of the communication or within such further period as may be agreed upon by the parties] and, if the parties reach a settlement, a memorandum of settlement shall be recorded in writing and signed by both the parties and a copy thereof shall be forwarded to the Conciliator and the authorities mentioned in clause (xxiv) of Section 2.

(3) Where a settlement is not reached between the employer and the collective bargaining agent or, if the views of the employer or collective bargaining agent have been communicated under sub-section (1) to the Works Council, there is a failure of bilateral negotiations in the Works Council, the employer or the collective bargaining agent may, within 15[seven] days from the end of the period referred to in sub-section (2), serve on the other party to the dispute a notice of lock-out or strike, as the case may be, in accordance with the provisions of this Ordinance.

Provisos : [ Omitted by the Industrial Relations (Amdt.) Act, XXIX of 1973.]

  1. Concillator : 16[(1) The Provincial Government shall, by notification in the official Gazette, appoint as many persons as it considers necessary to be Conciliators for the purposes of this Ordinance and shall specify in the notification the area within which, or the class of establishments or industries in relation to which, each one of them shall perform his functions.

58[(2) The Federal Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, appoint as many persons as it considers necessary to act as Conciliators in such disputes as the National Industrial Relations Commission is competent to adjudicate and determine under this Ordinance.]

27-A. Conciliation before notice of strike, etc.: [Ins. by the Industrial Relation (Amdt.) Ordinance, XIX of 1970, Section 12 and omitted by the Labour Laws (Amdt.) Ordinance, IX of 1972, Sec. 2.]

17[28. Notice of strike or lock-out : The period of a notice of lock-out or strike given under sub-section (3) of Section 26 shall be fourteen days.]

  1. Conciliation after notice of strike or lock-out : Where a party to an industrial dispute serves a notice of strike or lock-out under Section 18[26], it shall, simultaneously with the service of such notice, deliver a copy thereof to the Conciliator who shall proceed to conciliate 19[in the dispute and to the Labour Court.]
  2. Proceedings before Conciliator : (1) The Conciliator shall, as soon as possible, call a meeting of the parties to the dispute for the purpose of bringing about a settlement.
  3. Sec. 27 re-numbered as sub-sec. (1) and sub-sec. (2) added by Industrial Relations (Amdt.) Act, XXIX of 1973, Sec. 18.
  4. Sec. 28 subs. by Labour Laws (Amend.) Ordinance, IX of 1972, Sec. 2.
  5. Subs. for "28" by Labour Laws (Amend.) Ordinance, IX of 1972, Sec. 2.
  6. Subs. ibid.

(2) The parties to the dispute shall be represented before the Conciliator by persons nominated by them and authorised to negotiate and enter into an agreement binding on the parties :

20[Provided that if, in the opinion of the Conciliator, the presence of the employer or any officer of the trade union connected with the dispute is necessary in a meeting called by him, he shall give notice in writing requiring the employer or such officer to appear in persons before him at the place, date and time, specified in the notice; and it shall be the duty of the employer or the officer of the trade union to comply with the notice.]

(3) The Conciliator shall perform such functions in relation to a dispute him as may be prescribed and may, in particular, suggest to either party of the dispute such concessions or modifications in its demand as are in the opinion of the Conciliator likely to promote an amicable settlement of the dispute.

(4) If a settlement of the dispute or of any matter in dispute is arrived at in the course of the proceedings before him the Conciliator shall send a report thereof to the Provindial Government together with a memorandum of settlement signed by the parties to the dispute.

21[(5) If no settlement is arrived at within the period or the notice of strike or lock-out, the conciliation proceedings may be continued for such further period as may be agreed upon by the parties.]

  1. Arbitration : (1) If the conciliation fails, the Conciliator shall try to persuade the parties to agree to refer the dispute to an arbitrator. In case the parties agree, they shall make a joint request in writing for reference of the dispute to an arbitrator agreed upon by them.

(2) The arbitrator to whom a dispute is referred under sub-section (1) may be a person borne on a panel to be maintained by the Provincial Government or any other person agreed upon by the parties.

22[(3) The arbitrator shall give his award within a period of thirty days from the date on which the dispute is referred to him under sub-section (1) or such further period as may be agreed upon by the parties to the dispute.]

(4) After he has made an award, the arbitrator shall forward a copy thereof to the parties and to the Provincial Government who shall cause it to be published in the official Gazette.

(5) The award of the arbitrator shall be final and no appeal shall lie against it. It shall be valid for a period not exceeding two years, as may be fixed by the arbitrator.

  1. Strike and lock-out : (1) If no settlement is arrived at during the course of conciliation proceedings and the parties to the dispute do not agree to refer it to an arbitrator under Section 31, the workmen may go on strike or, as the case may be, the period of the notice under Section 28 or upon a declaration by the Conciliator that the conciliation proceedings have failed, whichever is the later.]

24[(1-A) The party raising a dispute may at any time either before or after the commencement of a strike or lock-out make an application to the Labour Court for adjudication of the dispute.]

25[(2) Where a strike or lock-out lasts for more than thirty days, the Federal Government, if it relates to a dispute which the Commission is competent to adjudicate and determine, and the Provincial Government, if it relates to any other dispute, may be order in writing, prohibit the strike or lock-out:

Provided that the Federal Government may, with respect to a strike or lock-out relating to a dispute which the Commission is competent to adjudicate and determine and the Provincial Government, with the previous approval of the Federal Government, may, with respect to any other strike or lock-out, by order in writing, prohibit a strike or lock-out at any time before the expiry of thirty days, if it is satisfied that the continuanace of such a strike or lock-out is causing serious hardship to the community or is prejudicial to the national interest.]

26[(3) In any case in which the Federal Government or the Provincial Government prohibits a strike or lock-out, it shall forthwith refer the dispute to the Commission or, as the case may be, the Labour Court.]

(4) The 27[Commission or, as the case may be, the Labour Court] shall, after giving both the parties to the dispute an opportunity of being heard, make such award as it deems fit as expeditiously as possible but not exceeding 28[thirty days] from the date on which the dispute referred to it :

Provided that the 29[Commission or, as the case may be, the Labour Court] may also make an interim award on any matter of dispute :

Provided also that any delay by the 26[Commission or, as the case may be, the Labour Court] in making an award shall to effect the validity of any award made by it.

(5) An award of the 26[Commission or, as the case may be, the Labour Court] shall be for such period as may be specified in the award which shall not be more than two years.

32-A and 32-B : [Omitted by the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Ordinance, XIX of 1970, Section 17].

  1. Strike or lock-out in public utility services :30(1) The Federal Government, in the case of a strike or lock-out relating to:-

(a) An industrial dispute of national importance, or

(b) an industrial dispute in respect of any of the public utility services,

which the Commission is competent to adjudicate and determine, and the Provincial Government in the case of a strike or lock-out relating to an industrial dispute in respect of any of the public utility services which the Commission is not competent to adjudicate and determine, may, by order in writing, prohibit a strike or lock-out at any time before or after the commencement of the strike or lock-out.]

(The provisions of sub-sections (3), (4) and (5) of Section 32 shall also apply to an order made under sub-section (1) above as they apply to an order made under sub-section (2) of that section.

31[34. Application to Labour Court: Any collective bargaining agent or any employer 32[...] may apply to the Labour Court for the enforcement of any right guaranteed or secured to it or him by or under any law or any award or settlement.]

33[34-A. Raising of industrial dispute by federation: 34[(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Ordinance, a federation of industry-wise trade unions or federation at the national level may, if it is a collective bargaining agent raise an industrial dispute affecting all employers or workers of the establishments represented by that federation and a decision of the Commission shall be binding on all such employers and workers].

(2) No collective bargaining agent 35 shall, at any time when a decision of the Commission in respect of any matter is effective, be entitled to raise a demand relating to that matter. Labour Courts, etc.

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